Radcliffe Line

Sources:wikipedia

​The Radcliffe Line was published on 17 August 1947 as a boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan upon thePartition of India. It was named after its architect, Sir Cyril Radcliffe , who, as chairman of the Border Commissions, was charged with equitably dividing 175,000 square miles (450,000 km 2) of territory with 88 million people.  Today its western side still serves as the Indo-Pakistani border and the eastern side serves as the India-Bangladesh border .

Background

On 15 July 1947, the Indian Independence Act 1947 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom stipulated that British rule in India would come to an end just one month later, on 15 August 1947. The Act also stipulated the partition of the

Provinces of British India into two new sovereign dominions: the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan .

The Indian Independence Act, passed by the British parliament, abandoned the

suzerainty of the British Crown over the

princely states and dissolved the Indian Empire, so that the rulers of the states found themselves fully independent and were free to decide for themselves whether to accede to one of the new dominions or to remain independent. 

Pakistan was intended as a Muslim homeland, while the new India was for the Hindus with a Hindu majority. Muslim-majority British provinces in the north were to become the foundation of Pakistan. The provinces of Baluchistan (91.8% Muslim before partition) and Sindh (72.7%) were granted entirely to Pakistan. However, two provinces did not have an overwhelming majority— Bengal in the north-east (54.4% Muslim) and the Punjab in the north-west (55.7% Muslim).  The western part of the

Punjab became part of West Pakistan and the eastern part became the Indian state of East Punjab , which was later divided between a smaller Punjab State and two other states. Bengal was also partitioned, into East Bengal (in Pakistan) and West Bengal (in India). Following independence, the North-West Frontier Province (whose borders with

Afghanistan had earlier been demarcated by the Durand Line) voted in a referendum to join Pakistan.  This controversial referendum was boycotted by the most popular Pukhtun movement in the province at that time. The area is now a province in Pakistan called Khyber Pakhtunkhwa .

The Punjab’s population distribution was such that there was no line that could neatly divide Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs . Likewise, no line could appease the

Muslim League , headed by Jinnah, and the Indian National Congress led by

Jawaharlal Nehru and Vallabhbhai Patel , and by the British. Moreover, any division based on religious communities was sure to entail “cutting through road and rail communications, irrigation schemes, electric power systems and even individual landholdings.”  However, a well-drawn line could minimize the separation of farmers from their fields, and also minimize the numbers of people who might feel forced to relocate.

As it turned out, on “the sub-continent as a whole, some 14 million people left their homes and set out by every means possible—by air, train, and road, in cars and lorries, in buses and bullock carts, but most of all on foot—to seek refuge with their own kind.” Many of them were slaughtered by an opposing side, some starved or died of exhaustion, while others were afflicted with ” cholera ,

dysentery , and all those other diseases that afflict undernourished refugees everywhere”.  Estimates of the number of people who died range between 200,000 (official British estimate at the time) and two million, with the consensus being around one million dead.

Quote

“Where there is beauty in the character,there is harmony in the home,when there is harmony in the home there is order in the nation & when there is order in the nation there is peace in the world”           

During an address in the European Parliament,this beautiful lines were taught to us by a great and good hearted man.

              -Dr.A.P.J Abdul Kalam.

8th March..

On 8th march,the world celebrates International women’s day.

For him on 8th March,2016 last year he gave his cpp exam.She was there too.Every batch had time period given respectively.Her’s cpp exam was before his.He was there sitting and suddenly after giving exam she came.She was telling to her friends about how hard the practical exam was and that not one of her’s program run on the machine and worried about the external giving marks.

She saw him he was studying,after seeing she sat beside him with some distance.

He was unknowingly understanding that why she is looking at him?

She was feeling the feel of love and this dumb guy was not able to solve the hints given by her.

Respect Love,Respect Women.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale Maharaj..

Today is the birth anniversary of the the Great King Chhatrapati Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale,who is also known as the Father of Indian Navy.
Now, Why Shivaji is known as Father of Indian Navy?

Shivaji built a strong naval presence across long coast of Konkan and Goa to protect sea trade, to protect the lands from sack of prosperity of subjects from coastal raids, plunder and destruction by Arabs, Portuguese, British, Abyssinians and pirates. Shivaji built ships in towns such as Kalyan, Bhivandi, and Goa for building fighting navy as well as trade. He also built a number of sea forts and bases for repair, storage and shelter. Shivaji fought many lengthy battles with Siddis of Janjira on coastline. The fleet grew to reportedly 160 to 700 merchant, support and fighting vessels. He started trading with foreigners on his own after possession of eight or nine ports in the Deccan. Shivaji’s admiral Kanhoji Angre is often said to be the “Father of Indian Navy”

Muslims were also a significant part of Maratha Navy.

Shivaji had several noteworthy Muslim soldiers, especially in his Navy. Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan (both were African descendants) were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim was chief of artillery.Muslim soldiers were known for their superior skills in naval and artillery combat skills.

Maratha Navy was strong and defended India against many foreign forces.

Most important reason is that people can relate to the part of history when Maratha existed. Period of Mauryas and Guptas are long gone. Forget about dates even the years are not clear. When we talk about their glory we refer to history written by foreign sources. No doubt India saw its golden age at the time of Guptas and Muryas but that age is long gone. This is not the case with Maratha. We can relate to this part of the history.

Its a different thing that some people treat the glory of Maratha as glory of Marathas only and not of whole India.

The modern Indian navy is indeed an extension of the navy created by Great Marathas and hence Shivaji is referred as Father of Indian Navy.