When Deep Sleep is disturbed, your ability to learn suffers. 

Every time you have a good night’s sleep, you can rest easy (pun intended) knowing that your brain is getting the support it needs. Researchers have long known that deep sleep and learning are related, but a May 2017 Swiss study has finally discovered a causal connection—that is, they’ve proven that deep sleep actually helps the learning process.

Catch Some Deep Z’s

When you spend the night tossing and turning, your brain feels like a pile of mush the next day. No matter how hard you try to comprehend the new system they’ve adopted at work, it just won’t compute. But why? Your brain is pretty high maintenance—in order to learn efficiently, it requires not only sleep, but deep sleep. 

For a study published in Nature Communications in 2017, researchers from Zurich, Switzerland developed a new, non-invasive way to disturb deep sleep in people’s motor cortex. They recruited six men and women to sleep in the lab overnight, once with regular deep sleep, and again after a night of manipulated sleep. The day after each night of sleep, they were asked to participate in a “learning assessment” where they were trained to tap their fingers in a particular order. The participants felt like they had the same quality of sleep both nights, but there was a marked decrease in their ability to learn the new tasks after the night of disturbed sleep.

Manipulate for a Cause:

Previous research could only associate the ability to learn with the quality of sleep, since both poor sleep quality and poor learning could be due to some third element. With these new results, the researchers proved that the quality of your sleep has a real effect on your learning efficiency. So, mom was right—be sure to catch some Z’s before a big day at school (or work)!

Since their new technique can directly manipulate sleep in specific brain regions, the scientists hope to use it in clinical studies of diseases that pop up during sleep, like epilepsy. By manipulating the specific brain regions that are connected with the disease, they may be able to help affected patients.

INS Kalvari


Kalvari is one of Indian Navy’s 6 Scorpene class stealth submarines which has been developed indigenously.
Defence Minister Parrikar had launched the submarine in March last year for sea trials where the vessel has sailed for over 1,000 hours till now.

Commissioning into Indian Navy is expected by March 2017.

With Commissioning of INS Kalvari, Indian Navy is also breaking apart from age old tradition, where earlier the shipyards would hand over warships to the Navy and then would continue trials on the systems on board and the vessels would be made fighting fit long after their official induction.

“The defence ministry is of the view that the vessels should be commissioned in service only if they are ready for deployment in operations moments after they are commissioned into the service,”

Project 75
The 6 Scorpenes are being constructed by Mazgaon Docks Ltd in partnership with a firm from France, DCNS under Project 75
This project’s delivery was first scheduled in 2012 but has been delayed considerably

Defence ministry has announced that the P75 project can also invite private players for a JV which will assist in the early completion of the project

Features of Kalvari
This Scorpene submarine has superior stealth technology
It can also launch massive attacks through precision guided weapons

An attack can be launched through this submarine with torpedoes as well as tube launched anti-ship missiles on the surface of the water or beneath it as well

This submarine works in all settings including the tropics, wherein various means and communications are in place to ensure interoperability with various components of the naval task force

Numerous defence activities can be carried out through this stealth submarine including mine laying, area surveillance, anti-submarine warfare, intelligence gathering and multifarious warfare activities

This Scorpene submarine is constructed from special steel and it can withstand high yield stress because it possesses tensile strength, it can withstand hydrostatic force of high magnitude and dive deeper

Kalvari and other submarines in this class are also equipped with WLT/Weapons Launching tubes and these can carry weapons on board which can effectively be reloaded at sea

All six submarines including Kalvari are being indigenously constructed at Mazgaon Dockyard Ltd in Mumbai

The last and may be second last attack submarine of these class will be equipped with air independent propulsion

The new diesel electronic Scorpene submarines will be named as per the old Foxtrot class boats decommissioned around 10 years ago; these were the first submarines of the Navy

INR Kalvari is one of a set of six submarines which is undergoing test and trials for last one and a half years rigorously at harbour and on sea whether on the surface or underwater

Mechanisms on this submarine have been designed to optimise safety; DRDO is in the process of establishing a system for carrying out structural health monitoring of under development nuclear submarines as well as future conventional Naval submarines

To speed up India in the race for naval vessels, the NDA government has ordered for an accelerated tendering process to construct 6 conventional diesel electric submarines at a cost estimated to be INR 50,000 crore or USD 8.1billion alongside the Scorpenes.

Field trials of Bofors carried out in Pakistan 

Exhaustive field trials are being carried out on two long-range ultra light howitzers in pokhran which the Indian Army received from the US after a gap of 30 years since the Bofors scandal broke out, an official said. 

The test firing of the guns is primarily aimed at collating and determining various critical data like trajectory, speed and frequency of fire of the M777 A-2 ultra light howitzers (ULH) which are expected to be mostly deployed along the border with China. India had struck a government to government deal with US last November for supply of the 145 howitzers at a cost of nearly Rs. 5,000 core. 


What is Hurriyat Conference?

Head of the Hurriyat:Syed Ali Shah Geelani

In a video release of press,this person said that he is not born an indian while he holds an indian passport.The Hurriyat always wanted some sort of “azaadi” with only some supporting them.They told the reporters,that kashmir is disputed land,while there is no doubt taht it belongs to India.

The Hurriyat are misleading the youths of kashmir into stone pelting,shouting anti-national slogans,showing pakistani and isis flags while their own childrens are studying abroad and not shouting…

The Hurriyat Conference started out as an organisational alliance of political parties and religious organisations in kashmir aiming at self-determination. In simple terms, they are kashmiri separatists who bestow the idea of an independent kashmir, or its separation from the union of indian states at the very least.Their Role:- According to the Shimla Agreement, only India and Pakistan Governments are the two parties which have a say in the Kashmir Conflict. But The Hurriyat Conference being an alliance of 26 organisations, must definitely enjoy some sort of support from the people of kashmir (even if only a small faction), and hence cannot be completely ignored. They want kashmir to be declared as a humanitarian crisis which would mean a possible UN intervention and a separate state.

The Indian Government refuses to give The Conference any major importance as Kashmir is still seen as an integral part of india, and considering the struggle for kashmir post independence, even the idea of giving kashmir away doesn’t make any sense. Indian Government has had special provisions for kashmir to ensure that it keeps kashmir happy. It recognises the special position that kashmir is in, and it needs to be handled separately. So, India is not the least bit in favour of Hurriyat’s ideology and sees them as a danger to india’s integrity.

The ideology of Hurriyat is used by pakistan to invoke unrest and terror activities in India for which the Hurriyat leaders gets funded by Pakistan’s ISI.

Why’s Pak running away?

Somedays earlier,the ICJ stayed execution of Indian nationalist Mr.Kulbhusan Sudhir Jadhav.

And today when the case was opened for jurisdiction in the ICJ Pak lost it badly.

Points to be undertaken:

1.When persons asked for proofs that mr.jadhav is a spy they always denied it completely.

2.why was the case of mr.jadhav was tried in a military court?

3.They(pakistan) totally denied and did not give consulor access to mr.jadhav and why?

4.Why the medical report of mr.jadhav was not provided when asked by India?

5.Why pak military court did not provide exact statement of mr.jadhav,how that evudence ia obtained?

At the ICJ,Mr.Qureshi(pak’s advocate)said that a passport has recovered and that it had a muslim name”Hussein Mubarak”.Also they wanted to play the live evidence but according to rules the so called extricated evidence can be due to pressure on mr.jadhav.So the ICJ cannot accept such evidence and rejected their proposal completely.

And most important question asked by India was  “As to why mr.jadhav has not been provided consulor access?”

According to vienna convention’s , of which both India and Pakistan is a signatory,clearly says that mr.jadhav must be getting consulor access.And not allowing is the violations of vienna as with respect to article 36.

Pakistan now is afraid that the International community would extricate them completely if they were to give consulor access to mr.jadhav and solid evidence as they called.pakistan is now running away?

If india can give consulor access to a terrorist like kasab,why pak can’t give access to our indian national?

Current Affairs 

​ February 1st week

Who is the newly appointed principal economic adviser in the department of economic affairs in the Union Finance Ministry?

Sanjeev Sanyal

Who has become the first Indian female singer to collaborate with United Nations for women empowerment?

Neeti Mohan

Who will be the new Managing Director & CEO of National Stock Exchange (NSE)

Vikram Limaye

The book “The Sons of the Dragon” has been authored by whom?

George RR Martin

What is the India’s GDP growth rate in FY 18, as per the latest report by the HSBC?


Which country has successfully tested a new version of a Dongfeng-5C ballistic missile?


As per Union Budget 2017-18, the Payments Regulatory Board (PRB) will be set up under the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Who will be chairman of the proposed board?

Governor of RBI

Explanation :

As per Union Budget 2017, the Payments Regulatory Board (PRB) will be set up within the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), which will comprise of six members, of which 3 will be from RBI. The PRB will replace the existing Board for Regulation and Supervision of Payment and Settlement Systems and will exercise the functions relating to the regulation and supervision of payments and settlement systems under the Payment and Settlements Act 2007. The chairman of the board will be the Governor of RBI, along with a deputy governor in charge of payments and settlements as member. It will also have 3 members nominated by the central government.

How much fund has been allocated to the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) for fiscal year 2017-18?

Rs. 333 crore

Lakshya Sen is associated with which sports?


Which new scheme will be launched by the Union Government to fund export infrastructure?

Trade Infrastructure for Export Scheme (TIES)

How much amount has been allocated for Bharat Net Project to promote digital transactions into rural India?

Rs. 10,000 crore

The 2017 International Conference and Exhibition on Terrestrial & Satellite Broadcasting has started in which city?

New Delhi

As per Union Budget 2017-18, the National Pension System (NPS) subscribers can prematurely withdraw how much percentage of corpus tax-free?


Which country will become the world’s first country to completely divest from fossil fuels?


Which state is the theme state in the 2017 Surajkund International Crafts Mela? Jharkhand

Who has been appointed the new Deputy Chief of the Army Staff (DCOAS) of Information Systems and Training?

JS Cheema

The 2017 Udyanotsav Feastival will be held in which of the following cities?

New Delhi

The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) raising day is celebrated on which date?

February 1

Who has been sworn-in as the new United States Secretary of State?

Rex Tillerson

How much amount has been sanctioned by the World Bank for “Third Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP III)” of India?

$201.50 million Hide Answer

Who is the leading the Indian delegation in the 2017 SAARC programming committee?

Prashant Agarwal

Which Indian personality will attend the 2017 St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF) as a Guest of Honour?

Narendra Modi

Which Bollywood actress has been appointed the new Brand Ambassador of the Swachh Bharat Campaign?

Anushka Sharma

The book “Between Two Worlds – The Assamese Sikhs” has been authored by whom?

Bimal Phukan

The Union Government will launch which platform to leverage Information Technology (IT)?


What is the theme of 2017 World Wetlands Day?

Wetlands for Disaster Risk Reduction

Which country will host the FIBA Women’s Asia Cup basketball tournament to be held in July 2017?


Which country won the gold medal in the Boys team event at the Asian Junior Squash championship on February 5, 2017 in Hong Kong?


Renowned Pakistani Urdu Novel writer ___________ passed away on February 4, 2017 in Lahore at the age of 88.

Bano Qudsia

The Measles-Rubella vaccination campaign was launched in which Indian city on February 5, 2017?


Velavan Senthilkumar is related to which sports?


Scientists from which country successfully transplanted the world’s smallest pacemaker, Micra Transcatheter Pacing System, for the first time in a patient suffering from Bradycardia?

United States

The programme on ‘Inner Strength and Disaster Resilience’ inaugurated by Kiren Rijiju had been organized in which place on February 3, 2017?

New Delhi

Who has been appointed as the MD and CEO of the Ujjivan Small Finance Bank?

Samit Ghosh

The first smart police station of Andhra Pradesh has been launched in which city on February 6, 2017?


Railway Ministry is set to lay the first railway line in Andaman and Nicobar Island that will connect Port Blair to which city?


Which bank has signed an agreement with the insurance company Cigna TTK Health to market the insurer’s products in the its branches across India?

Bank of Maharashtra

Which bank has signed an agreement with Earthport Plc to enable faster outbound cross-border payments for its customers?

Axis Bank

Ujjivan Small Finance Bank has launched its 5 pilot branches in which Indian city on February 6, 2017?


What is the name of the taxi hiring service launched by ride hailing company Uber on February 6, 2017?


Which England cricketer resigned as the Test Captain on February 5, 2017?

Alastair Cook

Iran has lifted the ban on which countries wrestler allowing them to take part in the Freestyle World Cup to be held in Iran in February 2017?

United States

Which country will host the World Billiards Championship for a period of continuous four years?


When is the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation observed?

February 6

The Indian Coast Guard conducted a joint exercise with which countries counter-part on February 6, 2017 to enhance co-operation and exchange of operational expertise?

United Arab Emirates (UAE)

India has recently signed MoU with which country for technical cooperation in rail sector especially on safety related subjects?


From which state / Union territory, the “Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccination campaign” has been launched?


Which state government has launched “Chief Minister Samagra Gramya Unnayan Yojana (CMSGUY)” to develop villages of the state?


Which country is host to the 4th BIMSTEC Summit-2017?


Which state government has launched “Kakatiya Hub for Social Innovation” India’s first social innovation centre?


Which country successfully tested Dongfeng-5C ballistic missile?