Simla Agreement on Bilateral Relations
between India and Pakistan signed by Prime
Minister Indira Gandhi , and President of
Pakistan, Z. A. Bhutto, in Simla on July 2,

Simla Agreement
Simla Treaty
Agreement Between the Government of India
the Government Pakistan on Bilateral Relati
Pakistan Army Rangers are standing with t
Flags of India and Pakistan
Type Peace treaty
Context Cold war
Drafted June 28, 1972 (1972-06-28)
Signed July 2, 1972; 43 years ago
Location Shimla , Himachal Pradesh, Ind
Sealed August 3, 1972
Effective August 4, 1972
Condition Ratification of both parties
Expiry April 14, 1974
Negotiators Foreign ministries of India and
Signatories Indira Gandhi
( Prime Minister of India)
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
( President of Pakistan )
Parties India
Ratifiers Parliament of India
Parliament of Pakistan
Depositary Governments of Pakistan and
Languages Hindi Urdu English
The Government of India and
the Government of Pakistan
are resolved that the two
countries put an end to the
conflict and confrontation that
have hitherto marred their
relations and work for the
promotion of a friendly and
harmonious relationship and
the establishment of durable
peace in the subcontinent so
that both countries may
henceforth devote their
resources and energies to the
pressing task of advancing the
welfare of their people.
In order to achieve this
objective, the Government of
India and the Government of
Pakistan have agreed as
(i) That the principles and
purposes of the Charter of the
United Nations shall govern
the relations between the two
(ii) That the two countries are
resolved to settle their
differences by peaceful means
through bilateral negotiations
or by any other peaceful
means mutually agreed upon
between them. Pending the
final settlement of any of the
problems between the two
countries, neither side shall
unilaterally alter the situation
and both shall prevent the
organization, assistance or
encouragement of any acts
detrimental to the
maintenance of peace and
harmonious relations.
(iii) That the prerequisite for
reconciliation, good
neighborliness and durable
peace between them is a
commitment by both the
countries to peaceful
coexistence respect for each
others territorial integrity and
sovereignty and
noninterference in each
others internal affairs, on the
basis of equality and mutual
benefit. That the basic issues
and causes of conflict which
have bedeviled the relations
between the two countries for
the last 25 years shall be
resolved by peaceful means.
(v) That they shall always
respect each others national
unity, territorial integrity,
political independence and
sovereign equality.
(vi) That in accordance with
the Charter of the United
Nations, they will refrain from
the threat or use of force
against the territorial integrity
or political independence of
each other.
Both governments will take all
steps within their power to
prevent hostile propaganda
directed against each other.
Both countries will encourage
the dissemination of such
information as would promote
the development of friendly
relations between them.
In order progressively to
restore and normalize
relations between the two
countries step by step, it was
agreed that:
(i) Steps shall be taken to
resume communications,
postal, telegraphic, sea, land,
including border posts, and
air links, including over
(ii) Appropriate steps shall be
taken to promote travel
facilities for the nationals of
the other country.
(iii) Trade and cooperation in
economic and other agreed
fields will be resumed as far
as possible.
(iv) Exchange in the fields of
science and culture will be
In this connection delegations
from the two countries will
meet from time to time to
work out the necessary details.
In order to initiate the process
of the establishment of
durable peace, both the
governments agree that:
(i) Indian and Pakistani forces
shall be withdrawn to their
side of the international
(ii) In Jammu and Kashmir ,
the line of control resulting
from the ceasefire of
December 17, 1971, shall be
respected by both sides
without prejudice to the
recognized position of either
side. Neither side shall seek to
alter it unilaterally,
irrespective of mutual
differences and legal
interpretations. Both sides
further undertake to refrain
from the threat or the use of
force in violation of this line.
(iii) The withdrawals shall
commence upon entry into
force of this agreement and
shall be completed within a
period of 30 days thereof.
This agreement will be subject
to ratification by both
countries in accordance with
their respective constitutional
procedures, and will come
into force with effect from the
date on which the instruments
of ratification are exchanged.
Both governments agree that
their respective heads will
meet again at a mutually
convenient time in the future
and that in the meanwhile the
representatives of the two
sides will meet to discuss
further the modalities and
arrangements for the
establishment of durable
peace and normalization of
relations, including the
questions of repatriation of
prisoners of war and civilian
internees, a final settlement of
Jammu and Kashmir and the
resumption of diplomatic
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto President
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Indira Gandhi Prime Minister
Simla, the 2 July 1972.
— Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, Indira


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