Why don’t Sharks have bones? 

Sharks are completely boneless. Instead of bones, sharks have skeletons made up of cartilage. A cartilage skeleton has its advantages: it is flexible, durable and light, and also heals faster than bone. That said, once a shark is out of water, the cartilage skeleton works against them. They can easily be crushed by their own body weight on land — because sharks lack rib cages, their weight isn’t supported out of water, and their bodies would collapse over time.

World’s largest waterfall isn’t what you think it is? 


What’s the largest waterfall in the world? If you’re talking by flow rate, it’s Inga Falls. If you mean the tallest, it’s Angel Falls. The widest? Khone Falls. But if you want to know the very largest waterfall in the world, you’ll have to look beneath the ocean. That’s where you’ll find the Denmark Strait Cataract, an underwater waterfall with measurements that make the others look laughable.

Don’t go looking for this Waterfall? 

Buried far underneath the water’s surface in the Denmark Strait between Greenland and Iceland hides the largest waterfall known to man. Underwater waterfalls, known as cascades—or, when they’re really big, cataracts—exist when cold and warm water meet. The molecules in cold water don’t move around much, so they stay close together and make the water denser than warm water, whose molecules tend to buzz around and leave more space between them. That makes cold water sink straight down through warm water, creating a steady and consistent flow.

The water coming from the Greenland Sea is Arctic cold, literally. When it enters the warmer water in the Irminger Sea, it drops 11,500 feet straight down, flowing at 175 million cubic feet per second. That absolutely annihilates any records on the surface—Angel Falls is only 3,212 feet high; Inga Falls flows just shy of a million cubic feet per second. Sure, it is slower—cold water falls through air much faster than it can sink through warm water—and it is, again, underwater, but does that make it any less of a waterfall?

Looking towards the future

The Denmark Strait Cataract and other cataracts like it aren’t just natural oddities. They’re part of a delicate ecosystem, and many are relied upon not only by commercial fishing crews, but deep-sea creatures that depend on them for their constant flow of nutrients. With evidence of climate change negatively affecting other underwater currents, and given the fact that its flow is so reliant on temperature, its future and the future of those who rely on it is shaky at best.

This plays around with the definition of a waterfall, but keep your mind open because this is is pretty amazing.The Denmark Strait, in the Atlantic Ocean between Greenland and Iceland, is an underground waterfall that tumbles almost 11,500 feet and carries 175 million cubic feet of water per second.

The reason it exists is due to temperature differences in the water on either side of the strait. Cold water is more dense than warm water. And the eastern side of the strait is a lot colder than the western side. So when the waters meet, the cold water sinks below the warmer water, creating a strong downward flow of water — one that can be (and is) considered a waterfall.

There are other areas of the ocean where the same thing happens, but the Denmark Straight is hands down the largest of them.

Livin in memories 

I love her, 

I don’t know where is she? 

Living life probably busy, 

Without her,always her thoughts, 

Near her, to express I forgot, 

Why does this have to be this way?,

When we both know the truth, 

Without each other we are incomplete, 

Our love is the medicine for every bad root,

Where do I find her, 

I don’t know where to look, 

I’ll love you always, 

Coz my heart you took. 


When Deep Sleep is disturbed, your ability to learn suffers. 

Every time you have a good night’s sleep, you can rest easy (pun intended) knowing that your brain is getting the support it needs. Researchers have long known that deep sleep and learning are related, but a May 2017 Swiss study has finally discovered a causal connection—that is, they’ve proven that deep sleep actually helps the learning process.

Catch Some Deep Z’s

When you spend the night tossing and turning, your brain feels like a pile of mush the next day. No matter how hard you try to comprehend the new system they’ve adopted at work, it just won’t compute. But why? Your brain is pretty high maintenance—in order to learn efficiently, it requires not only sleep, but deep sleep. 

For a study published in Nature Communications in 2017, researchers from Zurich, Switzerland developed a new, non-invasive way to disturb deep sleep in people’s motor cortex. They recruited six men and women to sleep in the lab overnight, once with regular deep sleep, and again after a night of manipulated sleep. The day after each night of sleep, they were asked to participate in a “learning assessment” where they were trained to tap their fingers in a particular order. The participants felt like they had the same quality of sleep both nights, but there was a marked decrease in their ability to learn the new tasks after the night of disturbed sleep.

Manipulate for a Cause:

Previous research could only associate the ability to learn with the quality of sleep, since both poor sleep quality and poor learning could be due to some third element. With these new results, the researchers proved that the quality of your sleep has a real effect on your learning efficiency. So, mom was right—be sure to catch some Z’s before a big day at school (or work)!

Since their new technique can directly manipulate sleep in specific brain regions, the scientists hope to use it in clinical studies of diseases that pop up during sleep, like epilepsy. By manipulating the specific brain regions that are connected with the disease, they may be able to help affected patients.

INS Kalvari


Kalvari is one of Indian Navy’s 6 Scorpene class stealth submarines which has been developed indigenously.
Defence Minister Parrikar had launched the submarine in March last year for sea trials where the vessel has sailed for over 1,000 hours till now.

Commissioning into Indian Navy is expected by March 2017.

With Commissioning of INS Kalvari, Indian Navy is also breaking apart from age old tradition, where earlier the shipyards would hand over warships to the Navy and then would continue trials on the systems on board and the vessels would be made fighting fit long after their official induction.

“The defence ministry is of the view that the vessels should be commissioned in service only if they are ready for deployment in operations moments after they are commissioned into the service,”

Project 75
The 6 Scorpenes are being constructed by Mazgaon Docks Ltd in partnership with a firm from France, DCNS under Project 75
This project’s delivery was first scheduled in 2012 but has been delayed considerably

Defence ministry has announced that the P75 project can also invite private players for a JV which will assist in the early completion of the project

Features of Kalvari
This Scorpene submarine has superior stealth technology
It can also launch massive attacks through precision guided weapons

An attack can be launched through this submarine with torpedoes as well as tube launched anti-ship missiles on the surface of the water or beneath it as well

This submarine works in all settings including the tropics, wherein various means and communications are in place to ensure interoperability with various components of the naval task force

Numerous defence activities can be carried out through this stealth submarine including mine laying, area surveillance, anti-submarine warfare, intelligence gathering and multifarious warfare activities

This Scorpene submarine is constructed from special steel and it can withstand high yield stress because it possesses tensile strength, it can withstand hydrostatic force of high magnitude and dive deeper

Kalvari and other submarines in this class are also equipped with WLT/Weapons Launching tubes and these can carry weapons on board which can effectively be reloaded at sea

All six submarines including Kalvari are being indigenously constructed at Mazgaon Dockyard Ltd in Mumbai

The last and may be second last attack submarine of these class will be equipped with air independent propulsion

The new diesel electronic Scorpene submarines will be named as per the old Foxtrot class boats decommissioned around 10 years ago; these were the first submarines of the Navy

INR Kalvari is one of a set of six submarines which is undergoing test and trials for last one and a half years rigorously at harbour and on sea whether on the surface or underwater

Mechanisms on this submarine have been designed to optimise safety; DRDO is in the process of establishing a system for carrying out structural health monitoring of under development nuclear submarines as well as future conventional Naval submarines

To speed up India in the race for naval vessels, the NDA government has ordered for an accelerated tendering process to construct 6 conventional diesel electric submarines at a cost estimated to be INR 50,000 crore or USD 8.1billion alongside the Scorpenes.

Field trials of Bofors carried out in Pakistan 

Exhaustive field trials are being carried out on two long-range ultra light howitzers in pokhran which the Indian Army received from the US after a gap of 30 years since the Bofors scandal broke out, an official said. 

The test firing of the guns is primarily aimed at collating and determining various critical data like trajectory, speed and frequency of fire of the M777 A-2 ultra light howitzers (ULH) which are expected to be mostly deployed along the border with China. India had struck a government to government deal with US last November for supply of the 145 howitzers at a cost of nearly Rs. 5,000 core. 



Jab dard had se jyaada ho jaata hai, 
Tab insaan rota nahi khamosh ho jaata hai. 

Jab aankhon ki nami khatm ho jaati hai, 

Toh Iska matlab ye nahi k ghum bhi khatm ho gaye.

Jab Insaan k pass aish-o-aaram Aata hai,

Tab woh apne sacche mitro ko bhool jaata hai. 

Jab Insaan kuch khota hai, 

Tab use us cheez ki kimat pata chalti hai.